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lundi 31 décembre 2012

English remembrering : révisions d'octobre 2012

Remembering the

Learner’s Words of each October Day

October 1
strive   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈstraɪv/   verb [no object]
inflected formsstrives; strove /ˈstroʊv/ also strived; striven /ˈstraɪvən/ or strived; striving
Status: formal


: to try very hard to do or achieve something • We must all strive to do better. • She always strives for perfection. • They strove for success. = They strove to succeed. • They continue to strive toward their goals. • striving against injustice [=working hard to fight injustice]
— striver /ˈstraɪvɚ/ noun, plural strivers [count]

October 2
ambition   Audio Pronunciation
   /æmˈbɪʃən/   noun
plural ambitions
[count] : a particular goal or aim : something that a person hopes to do or achieve • My first ambition as a child was to be in the circus. • The wife of a famous poet, she had literary ambitions of her own. [=she wanted to be a writer too] • He has ambitions for an acting career. = He has ambitions to become an actor. = His ambition is to be/become an actor. • She finally achieved/realized/fulfilled her life’s ambition [=the thing she most wanted to do in her life] when she started her own business.
[noncount] : a desire to be successful, powerful, or famous • He lacked ambition and couldn’t compete with the others. • With her talent and fierce ambition [=her very strong desire to succeed], she became a very successful actress.
[noncount]US : a desire to do things and be active — usually used in negative constructions • I was tired and had no ambition[=initiativeenergy], so I just spent the whole weekend watching TV.

October 3
campaign   Audio Pronunciation
   /kæmˈpeɪn/   noun [count]
plural campaigns
1 : a series of activities designed to produce a particular result • an election campaign [=a campaign to win a political election] • a presidential campaign • The group launched/mounted/led acampaign to protect the area from commercial development. • thecampaign against drugs • an expensive advertising campaign • The university is organizing a campaign to attract a more diverse student population. — often used before another noun • campaigncontributions • She kept/broke her campaign promises. • acampaign slogan
2 : a series of military battles, attacks, etc., designed to produce a particular result in a war • a bombing campaign

Learn about campaign
 as a verb.
October 4
endorse   Audio Pronunciation
   /ɪnˈdoɚs/   verb [with object]
Variant spelling: indorse
inflected formsendorses; endorsed; endorsing
1 : to publicly or officially say that you support or approve of (someone or something) • The newspaper has endorsed the conservative candidate for mayor. • The committee must endorse[=approve] the decision. • We do not endorse their position.

2 : to publicly say that you like or use (a product or service) in exchange for money • She endorses a line of clothing. • That brand of sneaker is endorsed by several basketball stars.
3 : to write your name on the back of (a check) • You must endorsethe check before you deposit it in the bank.

British : to put information about a driving offense on (a person’s driver’s license) — usually used as (beendorsed • His driving license was endorsed for speeding.

— endorser noun, plural endorsers [count]
October 5
formation   Audio Pronunciation
   /foɚˈmeɪʃən/   noun
plural formations
[noncount] : the act of forming or creating something • theformation [=development] of new ideas • The book explains theformation of the planets.
[count] : something that is formed or created • an interesting cloud formation • new word formations • rock formations
3 : an orderly arrangement or group of people, ships, or airplanes — often used after in [noncount] • The soldiers were marching information. • jets flying in formation [count• The team ran on the field and lined up in a punt formation.
October 6
ward   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈwoɚd/   noun [count]
plural wards
1 a : a section in a hospital for patients needing a particular kind of care • She works in the cancer/maternity/psychiatric ward.
1 US : a section in a prison • a maximum security ward
2: one of the sections into which a city or town is divided for the purposes of an election • the council representative from Ward 22
3 : a person (such as a child) who is protected and cared for by a court or guardian • They were wards of the state. • (US) The boy was made a ward of the court. = (British) The boy was made award of court.
Learn about ward
 as a verb.

October 7
a matter of life and death   Audio Pronunciation
something that is extremely important and often involves decisions that will determine whether someone lives or dies • Being prepared for severe weather can be a matter of life and death.

October 8
confront   Audio Pronunciation
   /kənˈfrʌnt/   verb [with object]
inflected formsconfronts; confronted; confronting
1 a : to oppose or challenge (someone) especially in a direct and forceful way • They confronted the invaders at the shore. — often used as (beconfronted • He was confronted by a security guard when he tried to leave the store. • The mayor was confronted by a group of angry protestors.

1 b : to directly question the action or authority of (someone) • Sheconfronted him about his smoking. • No one was willing to confront[=challenge] the company president on that point.
2 a : to deal with (something, such as a problem or danger) • Theyconfronted [=(more commonly) encountered] many obstacles along the way.especially to deal with (something) in an honest and direct way • The treatment center helps people confront [=face] their addictions. • It’s better to confront [=address] a problem than to avoid it.
2 b : to force (someone) to see or deal with (something, such as a problem) in a direct way • The photographs confront the viewer with images of desperate poverty. • I confronted her with the evidence.— often used as (beconfronted • They were confronted with many problems during the project.
2 c : to be a problem for (someone or something) • We know of the financial problems confronting [=facing] local schools.
October 9
fray   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈfreɪ/   verb
inflected formsfrays; frayed; fraying
to cause (a cloth or other material) to become worn down at the end or edge to separate the threads of (a material) [with object• She frayed the edges of her cutoff jeans. = She frayed her cutoff jeans at the edges. [no object• The cuffs of the old shirt werefraying— often used figuratively • Her temper was starting to fray.[=she was beginning to get angry] • His nerves were frayed/fraying. • their frayed/fraying friendship

Learn about fray
 as a noun.
October 10
remnant   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈrɛmnənt/   noun [count]
plural remnants
1 : the part of something that is left when the other parts are gone — usually plural; often followed by of • These villages are the last surviving remnants of a great civilization. • A new police force was formed from the remnants of the army.

2 : a small piece of cloth that is left after the rest of the cloth has been sold • Remnants go on sale next week.
October 11
minimal   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈmɪnəməl/   adjective
comparative and superlative formsmore minimal; most minimal
: very small or slight in size or amount • The storm caused minimaldamage. • The costs were minimal. • areas at minimal risk for flooding • They made the repairs with minimal disruption [=with the least possible disruption] to the schedule.
— minimally adverb • a minimally adequate supply • a minimallyuseful tool
October 12
inkling   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈɪŋklɪŋ/   noun [count]
plural inklings
: a slight, uncertain idea about something a slight amount of knowledge about something — usually singular • I didn’t have aninkling [=clue] of what it all meant. • Nothing gave me any inklingthat it would happen.
October 13
supplement   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈsʌpləmənt/   noun [count]
plural supplements
1 : something that is added to something else in order to make it complete • dietary/vitamin supplements

2 : an extra part that is added to a book or newspaper • an advertising/literary supplement • the supplement to the encyclopedia

3 British : an amount of money that must be paid in addition to the regular price • First-class accommodation is available for asupplement.
Learn about supplement
 as a verb.

October 14
to die for   Audio Pronunciation
Status: informal
worth dying for extremely desirable or appealing • Dinner was nothing special, but the dessert was to die for. • The apartment has a view to die for. [=has a great view]

October 15
legitimate   Audio Pronunciation
   /lɪˈʤɪtəmət/   adjective
1 a : allowed according to rules or laws • a legitimate [=legal, lawful] heir/government/business • legitimate means for achieving success • the legitimate use of firearms
1 b : real, accepted, or official • It’s not clear that the letter islegitimate [=genuine]; it may be a forgery.

[more legitimate; most legitimatefair or reasonable • We think her concern/excuse is legitimate. = We think she has alegitimate concern/excuse. • There’s no legitimate reason for prescribing this medication to a child. • His claim is legitimate.
3 : born to a father and mother who are married • legitimatechildren
— legitimacy /lɪˈʤɪtəməsi/ noun [noncount• Many question thelegitimacy of the law.
— legitimately adverb • We earned the money legitimately. [=legally] • He can legitimately [=rightfully] claim to be the best athlete in his class.
Learn about legitimate
 as a verb.
October 16
validity   Audio Pronunciation
   /vəˈlɪdəti/   noun [noncount]
1 : the state of being acceptable according to the law : the state of being valid • The validity of the contract/document is being questioned.
2 : the quality of being real or correct • Scientists questioned thevalidity of the findings.

October 17
profound   Audio Pronunciation
   /prəˈfaʊnd/   adjective
comparative and superlative formsmore profound; most profound
1 a : having or showing great knowledge or understanding • aprofound thinker • His knowledge of history is profound. • Her books offer profound insights into the true nature of courage.
1 b : difficult to understand requiring deep thought or wisdom • theprofound mysteries of outer space • profound questions
2 a : very strongly felt • profound sorrow • a profound sense of loss
2 b : very great • Computer technology has made profound[=major, significant] changes in our lives. • His paintings have had aprofound effect/impact/influence on her own work.
somewhat formal : absolute or complete • a profoundsilence/sleep/deafness

— profoundly adverb • She was influenced profoundly by his art. • The discovery is profoundly important. • Their beliefs are profoundlydifferent. • profoundly deaf people

October 18
groundbreaking   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈgraʊndˌbreɪkɪŋ/   adjective
comparative and superlative formsmore groundbreaking; most groundbreaking
: introducing new ideas or methods • She was honored for hergroundbreaking work in nuclear physics. • a groundbreaking new book
October 19
overall   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˌoʊvɚˈɑ:l/   adverb
1 : with everyone or everything included • He scored highestoverall. • She figured out what it would cost overall. [=altogether]
2 : as a whole : in general • He made a few mistakes but did welloverall. • Overall, the project was successful.

Learn about overall as an adjective
 and as a noun
October 20
no-brainer   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈnoʊˈbreɪnɚ/   noun [count]
plural no-brainers
Status: informal
: a decision or choice that is very easy to make and requires very little thought • The offer of a full scholarship made his choice of colleges a no-brainer.

October 21
dead in the water   Audio Pronunciation
Status: informal
: not making any progress not having any chance of success • The peace talks were dead in the water. • His election campaign isdead in the water.
October 22
debris   Audio Pronunciation
   /dəˈbri:, British ˈdɛˌbri:/   noun [noncount]
1 : the pieces that are left after something has been destroyed • After the earthquake, rescuers began digging through the debris in search of survivors. • Everything was covered by dust and debris.— sometimes used figuratively • She sifted through the debris of her broken marriage.
2 : things (such as broken pieces and old objects) that are lying where they fell or that have been left somewhere because they are not wanted • The crew cleaned up cigarette butts and other debris. [=trash, rubbish]
October 23
pledge   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈplɛʤ/   verb
inflected formspledges; pledged; pledging
[with object] : to formally promise to give or do (something) • Her family pledged $100,000 toward the construction of a new school. • He called to pledge money to the charity. • We’ve all pledged (our) loyalty/support/allegiance to the organization. • Every morning, wepledge allegiance to the flag. • teenagers who have pledged not to start smoking • During his campaign, he pledged that he would not raise taxes.
[with object] : to cause (someone) to formally promise something • She pledged herself to silence. [=she promised that she would not say anything] • The chefs are pledged to keep the restaurant’s special recipe a secret.
[with object] : to give (something) as a way to show that you will keep your promise to someone • He pledged his paintings as collateral/security for a loan.
4 US : to promise to join (a college fraternity or sorority) [withobject• She pledged the sorority as a freshman. [no object] • A few of his friends pledged to/with fraternities.

Learn about pledge
 as a noun.
October 24
bankroll   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈbæŋkˌroʊl/   verb [with object]
inflected formsbankrolls; bankrolled; bankrolling
Status: chiefly US, informal
: to supply money for (a business, project, person, etc.) • His parents bankrolled [=paid for] his college education. • The company is bankrolling [=financing] the film.

Learn about bankroll
 as a noun.
October 25
donor   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈdoʊnɚ/   noun [count]
plural donors
1 : a person or group that gives something (such as money, food, or clothes) in order to help a person or organization • The money was raised from individual donors. • She is one of the charity's/cause's major donors.

2 : a person who gives something (such as blood or a body organ) so that it can be given to someone who needs i• blood/organdonors • a kidney donor • a donor organ • a donor card [=a card that says that you want to donate your organs when you die]
October 26
incoherent   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˌɪnkoʊˈhirənt/   adjective
comparative and superlative formsmore incoherent; most incoherent
not coherent: such as
a : not able to talk or express yourself in a clear way that can be easily understood • The fever made her incoherent. • He was very upset and practically incoherent after the accident. • an incoherentpatient

b : not logical or well-organized not easy to understand • anincoherent story [=a story that does not make sense] • The memo is completely incoherent.
— incoherence /ˌɪnkoʊˈhirəns/ noun [noncount] • The patient experiences periods of incoherence. • They criticized him for theincoherence of his writing.

 incoherently adverb • She responded incoherently.
October 27
blur   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈblɚ/   verb
inflected formsblurs; blurred; blurring
[with object: to make (something) unclear or difficult to see or remember • a technique that blurs the edges of the image [=makes the edges of the image less sharp] • The tears in my eyes blurredthe words on the page.• His novel is based on historical occurrences but it blurs the line/distinction between fact and fiction.
[no objectto become unclear or difficult to see or remember • I was so tired that my vision/eyes started to blur. [=I was not able to see clearly] • The two events have blurred together in my mind.

— blurred adjective [more blurred; most blurred• The writing isblurred [=blurry] but I think I can read it. • The patient's symptoms include blurred vision. • a blurred memory
Learn about blur
 as a noun.
October 28
a nail in the coffin   Audio Pronunciation
something that makes it more likely that someone or something will fail, be destroyed, etc. • Every mistake is one more nail in the coffinof his professional baseball career. • The lawyers put another nail in her coffin today.
October 29
exaggerate   Audio Pronunciation
   /ɪgˈzæʤəˌreɪt/   verb
inflected formsexaggerates; exaggerated; exaggerating
1 : to think of or describe something as larger or greater than it really is [with object] • The book exaggerates the difficulties he faced in starting his career. • It’s impossible to exaggerate the importance of this discovery. [no object] •  He tends to exaggeratewhen talking about his accomplishments.
[with object] : to make (something) larger or greater than normal • He exaggerated his movements so we could see them more clearly.
— exaggerated adjective [more exaggerated; most exaggerated] • He has a very/greatly exaggerated idea of his own importance. • a very exaggerated gesture
 exaggeratedly adverb [more exaggeratedly; most exaggeratedly• an exaggeratedly large gesture
— exaggeration /ɪgˌzæʤəˈreɪʃən/ noun, plural exaggerations[count• The report was filled with exaggerations and outright lies.[noncount• She told us what happened without exaggeration. [=without exaggerating]
— exaggerator /ɪgˈzæʤəˌreɪtɚ/ noun, plural exaggerators[count] • He’s an exaggerator, if not an outright liar.
October 30
parody   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈperədi/   noun
plural parodies
1 : a piece of writing, music, etc., that imitates the style of someone or something else in an amusing way [count• a political parody • He has a talent for writing parodies. — often followed by of • The book was written as a parody of Henry James’s style. • a parody ofa soap opera [noncount• a writer with a talent for parody
[count] disapproving : a bad or unfair example of something — often followed by of • The trial was a parody of justice. [=the trial was very unfair]

Learn about parody
 as a verb.
October 31
creepy   Audio Pronunciation
   /ˈkri:pi/   adjective
comparative and superlative formscreepier; creepiest or more creepy; most creepy
Status: informal
: strange or scary : causing people to feel nervous and afraid • acreepy movie • a creepy old house • There’s something creepyabout that guy.
 creepily /ˈkri:pəli/ adverb
 creepiness noun [noncount]
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