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lundi 15 octobre 2012

English remembrering : révisions de septembre 2012

Remembering the


Learner’s Words of each September Day

September 1
convention /kənˈvɛnʃən/ noun
plural conventions - MEANING :
1 [count] : a large meeting of people who come to a place for usually several days to talk about their shared work or other interests or to make decisions as a group 

• We go to the weeklong annual teachers’ convention every summer. 
• He bought some new books at the science fiction convention.
• The Democratic National Convention will meet next week to announce their party’s candidate for president.
• The conference was held at the new convention center. [=a building or set of buildings designed to hold many people and meetings]
 2 : a custom or a way of acting or doing things that is widely accepted and followed [count] 

• It’s important to follow the conventions of punctuation in a paper for school.
• They say school is just as important for teaching children social codes and conventions as for teaching math. [noncount]
• The award that by convention should have gone to the student with the highest grade went instead to the teacher’s favorite.
• a director who has always defied convention [=done unexpected or unusual things] in his movies
3 [count] : a traditional or common style often used in literature, theater, or art to create a particular effect
• His latest novel uses the conventions of early 19th-century literature.
4 [count]formal : a formal agreement between two groups (such as countries or political organizations)
• an international convention banning the spread of nuclear weapons
• the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

September 2 
unveil /ˌʌnˈveɪl/ verb [with object]
inflected forms: unveils; unveiled; unveiling
1 : to show or reveal (something) to others for the first time
• The developer unveiled plans for a new housing complex.
• The company will unveil its newest product today.

2 : to remove a cover from (something) so that people can see it
• unveil a statue
— unveiling noun, plural unveilings [count]
• Many people were present for the unveiling of the statue.

September 3 
haven /ˈheɪvən/ noun [count]
plural havens
a place where you are protected from danger, trouble, etc.
• The shelter offers/provides a haven from abusive spouses.
• The inn is a haven for weary travelers.
• This national park provides asafe haven for wildlife.

September 4 
perk /ˈpɚk/ noun [count]
plural perks
1 : something extra that someone receives in addition to regular pay for doing a job 
— usually plural 
• The job came with severalperks, including use of a company car.
2 : a good thing that you have or get because of your situation 

— usually plural 
• One of the perks of being a celebrity is that people often want to give you things.
Learn about perk as a verb and as another verb.

September 5
boom /ˈbu:m/ verb
inflected forms: booms; boomed; booming
MEANING :1 a [no object] : to make a deep and loud sound
• the sound of the bass drum booming throughout the finale
• His voice boomedout across the congregation.
1b [with object] : to say (something) in a deep and loud voice
• She boomed commands from the stern of the ship.
• “What’s going on here?” he boomed.
2 [no object] of a business or industry : to grow or expand suddenly
• Housing construction has boomed in the past year.
• Last year we almost had to close the store, but now business isbooming.
Learn about boom as a noun and as another noun.

September 6 
outburst /ˈaʊtˌbɚst/ noun [count]
plural outbursts

1 : a sudden expression of strong feeling 

• an outburst of anger/kindness 
• He later apologized for his outburst (of anger). 
• an angry outburst
2 : a sudden increase in activity 

• an outburst of violence/creativity/rumors

September 7
measure up phrasal verb
to be as good as expected or needed
• His early works were promising, but his recent films haven’t measured up.
[=his recent films haven’t been as good as his early ones]
— often followed by to 
• His recent films haven’t measured up to his earlier works. 
• Her work didn’t measure up to our expectations.
[=was not as good as we expected it to be]

September 8 
exceed     /ɪkˈsi:d/   verb [with object]
inflected forms: exceeds; exceeded; exceeding

1 : to be greater or more than (something) 

• The cost must not exceed ten dollars. 
• The cost exceeded our estimate. 
• The demand for new housing has already exceeded the supply. 
: to be better than (something) 
• Their accomplishments far exceeded [=surpassed] our expectations. 
• He’s trying to match or exceed last year's sales.
2 : to go beyond the limit of (something) 
• Lawyers argue that the court exceeded [=overstepped] its authority in ordering a new trial.

September 9 

formidable     /ˈfoɚmədəbəl, foɚˈmɪdəbəl/   adjective
comparative and superlative forms: more formidable; most formidable
1 : very powerful or strong : deserving serious attention and respect 
• a formidable enemy/opponent/weapon
2 : very difficult to deal with 
• The mountains were a formidable barrier. 
• a formidable challenge/task
3 : large or impressive in size or amount 
• He has mastered a formidable amount of material.
— formidably /ˈfoɚmədəbli, foɚˈmɪdəbli/ adverb 
• a formidably long list

September 10
drought /ˈdraʊt/ noun
plural droughts - MEANING :
a long period of time during which there is very little or no rain [count]
• The drought caused serious damage to crops. [noncount]
• a period of drought that lasted several years.

September 11 

ambush /ˈæmˌbʊʃ/ noun
plural ambushes
1 [count] : an act of hiding, waiting for others to appear, and then suddenly attacking them : a surprise attack 
• Many soldiers were killed in the ambush.
2 [noncount] : a hidden place from which a surprise attack can be made 
• The soldiers were lying in ambush, waiting for the enemy to approach. 
• a snake waiting in ambush for its next meal
Learn about ambush as a verb.

September 12 

treacherous     /ˈtrɛtʃərəs/   adjective
comparative and superlative forms: more treacherous; most treacherous
1 : not able to be trusted 
• a treacherous ally/enemy : showing that someone cannot be trusted 
• a treacherous act of betrayal 
• treacherous misdeeds
2 : very dangerous and difficult to deal with 
• sailing through treacherous waters 
• They were not prepared to hike over such treacherous terrain. 
• The snow made their hike all the more treacherous. 
• Discussions about money can lead couples into treacherous territory.
— treacherously adverb

September 13 
nasty     /ˈnæsti, British ˈnɑ:sti/   adjective
comparative and superlative forms: nastier; nastiest also more nasty; most nasty
1 : very unpleasant to see, smell, taste, etc. 
• She has a nasty habit of biting her fingernails. 
• The food looks nasty. 
• The medicine left a nasty taste in my mouth. 
• a nasty-tasting medicine
2 : indecent and offensive 
• a violent movie with a lot of nasty [=bad, dirty] language
3 : unpleasant and unkind 
• That was a nasty [=cruel, mean] trick! 
• That nasty old man yelled at me just for stepping on his lawn! 
• He sent a nasty letter/e-mail to the company. 
• He said lots of downright nasty things about her. 
• She called him a few nasty names and left.
4 : very bad or unpleasant 
• nasty weather/storms 
• It’s rainy and nasty outside. 
• He’s in for a nasty surprise when he gets home. 
• He just went through a nasty divorce. 
• a nasty legal battle 
• Their relationship got/turned nasty soon after they were married.
5 : very serious or severe 
• You’ve got a nasty cut on your head. 
• a nasty wound : causing much damage 
• She had a nasty fall on the ice. 
• He took a nasty spill while riding his bike.
— nastily /ˈnæstəli, British ˈnɑ:stəli/ adverb 
• He spoke nastily about his ex-girlfriend.
— nastiness /ˈnæstinəs, British ˈnɑ:stinəs/ noun [noncount]

September 14 
weigh in     phrasal verb
1 weigh in or weigh (someone) in or weigh in (someone) : to be weighed or to weigh (someone) before competing in a fight, race, etc. 
• When will the jockeys weigh in? 
• The boxers were weighed in before the fight.

2 weigh in: to have a specified weight 
— followed by at 
• He weighs in at 240 pounds. [=he weighs 240 pounds]

3 weigh in informal : to give your opinion about something 
• I think we're pretty much decided, unless you want to weigh in.
 — often followed by with 
• Would you like to weigh in with your opinion? 
[=would you like to say what your opinion is?] 
— often followed by on in U.S. English 
• Do you want to weigh in on our weekend plans? 
[=do you want to say your opinion about our weekend plans?]

September 15 MEANING :
alert     /əˈlɚt/   adjective
comparative and superlative forms: more alert; most alert
MEANING : able to think clearly and to notice things 
• An alert guard stopped the robbers. 
• The nurse kept/stayed alert for any change [=watched for any change] in the patient's condition. 
• He was tired and had trouble staying alert while he was driving. 
• She wasn't mentally alert enough to answer the questions. 
• an alert mind 
• An alert watchdog guarded the door. 
— often followed by to 
• The nurse should be alert to any change in the patient's condition. 
• He is alert to [=aware of] his duties as a father.
— alertly adverb 

• A watchdog alertly guarded the door.
— alertness noun [noncount]
Learn about alert as a noun and as a verb.

September 16
warning /ˈwoɚnɪŋ/ noun
plural warnings
1 : something (such as an action or a statement) that tells someone about possible
danger or trouble [count]
• She gave me a warning about the difficulties of the job.
• There were storm warnings [=warnings that a storm was approaching] issued for the area.
• She issued a stern warning against making changes too quickly.
• Let that be a warning to you. [noncount]
• We had no warning of the dangers that were ahead of us.
• Without any warning she turned around and ran.
• The storm struck without warning.
2 [count] : a statement that tells a person that bad or wrong behavior will be punished
if it happens again
• I was stopped for speeding, but the policeman just gave me a warnin
— warning adjective, always used before a noun
• A warning bell rang before classes started.
• The policeman fired a warning shot.
• Falling prices may be a warning sign of a recession. [=may indicate that a recession is coming]
• the warning signs of cancer

September 17 
rebel /ˈrɛbəl/ noun [count]
plural rebels


 1 : a person who opposes or fights against a government 
• The government captured six armed rebels. 
— often used before another noun 
• a rebel army/leader 
• rebel forces/groups 
• the rebel movement  
2 : a person who opposes a person or group in authority 
• He was a rebel against the school administration. : a person who does not obey rules or accept normal standards of behavior, dress, etc. 
• He is a typical teenage rebel. 
• a fashion rebel

September 18 
ledge /ˈlɛʤ/ noun [count]
plural ledges


1 : a narrow, flat surface that sticks out from a wall 
• a window ledge 
• birds perched on the ledge of a building  
2 : a flat rock surface that sticks out from a cliff 
• a ledge on the side of the mountain

September 19 

genuine  /ˈʤɛnjəwən/ adjective
comparative and superlative forms: more genuine; most genuine

1 : actual, real, or true : not false or fake 

• genuine leather 
• The signature is genuine.[=authentic] 
• There has been a genuine improvement in the economy in recent months. 
— often used in the phrase the genuine article to refer to someone or something that is not a copy or substitute 
• Don't fall for cheap imitations; this is the genuine article. 
• A lot of people pretend to be cowboys, but he's the genuine article. [=he's a real cowboy]
2 : sincere and honest 

• genuine emotions 
• She showed a genuine interest in our work. 
• He has always shown a genuine concern for poor people. 
• a genuine desire to help others 
• She seems to be a very genuine person.  
— genuinely adverb 
• He was genuinely concerned.  
— genuineness noun [noncount] 
• the genuineness of the leather 
• the genuineness of her interest

September 20 
rim  /ˈrɪm/   noun [count 
plural rims
1 : the outer edge of a usually round object  
• There were chips on the rim of the plate.
• eyeglasses with wire rims 
• The basketball bounced off the rim (of the hoop). 
• the rim of the volcano
2 : the part of a wheel that the tire is put on 
• He bought stainless steel rims for his new car.
 — rimless /ˈrɪmləs/ adjective 
 • rimless glasses
Learn about rim as a verb.

September 21 
balance out phrasal verb - 
1 balance out (something) or balance (something) out : to make (a different or opposite thing) less powerful, noticeable, etc. 

• Serve black coffee to help balance out the sweetness of the dessert. 
• His quickness will balance out [=compensate for, make up for] the other fighter’s greater strength. 
• The discount balances out the shipping charge. = The discount and the shipping charge balance each other out. [=the shipping charge and the discount together equal zero]
2 : to be or become equal or even 

• The good times and the bad times balanced out [=evened out] in the end.

September 22 

milestone  /ˈmajəlˌstoʊn/ noun [count] 
plural milestones - MEANING :
1 : a stone by the side of a road that shows the distance in miles to a specified place
2 : an important point in the progress or development of something : a very important event or advance — usually followed by in • The birth of their first child was a (major) milestone in their marriage. • The study marks an important milestone in our understanding of the disease.

September 23

pioneer /ˌpajəˈniɚ/ noun [count]  
plural pioneers - MEANING :
1 : a person who helps create or develop new ideas, methods, etc.
 — often followed by in 
• They were pioneers in the field of American medicine.
• She was a pioneer in the development of new cancer treatments.
 — often followed by of 
• a pioneer of digital technology
2 : someone who is one of the first people to move to and live in a new area 
• the pioneers who settled in the American West in the 19th century
— pioneer adjective, always used before a noun 
• pioneer surgeons 
• the pioneer days of the old West
Learn about pioneer as a verb.

September 24
scenario /səˈnerijoʊ, British səˈnɑ:riəʊ/ noun [count]
plural scenarios - MEANING :
1 : a description of what could possibly happen 
• A possible scenario would be that we move to the city.
• The most likely scenario is that he goes back to school in the fall.
• The best-case scenario would be for us to finish the work by tomorrow.
• In the worst-case scenario, we would have to start the project all over again.
2 formal : a written description of a play, movie, opera, etc

September 25
dismiss /dɪsˈmɪs/ verb [with object]
inflected forms: dismisses; dismissed; dismissing
1 : to decide not to think about or consider (something or someone) 
• We dismissed his accusations. 
• We can't completely dismiss [=discount] the possibility that she's right. 
• I don’t think we should dismiss the matter lightly. 
— often followed by as 
• His idea was dismissed as impractical. 
• For a long time they dismissed her as a silly old woman.
2 : to send (someone) away : to cause or allow (someone) to leave 
• The students were dismissed early because of the snowstorm. 
• Class is dismissed.[=the class is over and students are free to leave]
3 : to officially make (someone) leave a job : to end the employment or service of (someone) 
• He was dismissed [=fired] from his job. 
• Several employees were recently dismissed.
4 law : to officially end or stop (something, such as a legal case) 
• The judge dismissed the case/suit. 
• All charges were dismissed. [=dropped]— dismissal /dɪsˈmɪsəl/ noun, plural dismissals [count] 
• I was surprised by his dismissal of the idea. 
• A small group is protesting the dismissals of several employees. 
• the dismissal of the lawsuit [noncount] 
• He still hopes to win his claim for unfair dismissal.

September 26
squash /ˈskwɑ:ʃ/ verb
inflected forms: squashes; squashed; squashing
1 [with object] : to press (something) into a flat or flatter shape
• She squashed the bug.
• He squashed his nose against the window.
• The tomatoes got squashed.
2 [with object] : to stop (something) from continuing by doing or saying something
• She tried to squash [=quash] the rumors.
• His poor performance squashed any hope he had of a promotion.
• The boss squashed my idea immediately.
3 always followed by an adverb or preposition :
to move into a space that is very tight or crowded [no object]
• Four of us squashed [=squeezed] into the backseat.
• (British) Squash up [=move closer together] to make room for one more person.[with object]
• Someone had squashed all the ribbons together in one box.
— often used as (be) squashed
• We were squashed between the table and wall.
• The ribbons had all been squashed together into one box.
Learn about squash as a noun and as another

September 27 

crumble /ˈkrʌmbəl/   verb 
inflected forms: crumbles; crumbled; crumbling
1 [with object] : to break (something) into small pieces 
• Crumble the cookies into small bits. 
• The recipe calls for the herbs to be crumbled.
2 [no object] : to separate into many small pieces : to fall apart
• The arch had crumbled [=disintegrated] under the weight of all those stones.
• bones so old they had crumbled to dust
• crumbling buildings/monuments/walls 
3 [no object] : to break down completely : to stop functioning
• Peace talks between the two parties have crumbled. [=collapsed]
• She was extremely depressed after her marriage crumbled.
• their crumbling marriage
 Learn about crumble as a noun.

September 28
down to size idiom - MEANING :
If people cut/bring (etc.) you down to size, they make you realize that you are not as powerful and important as you thought you were.
• He thinks he’s so smart! I wish someone would cut him down to size.

September 29
flush /ˈflʌʃ/ verb
inflected forms: flushes; flushed; flushingMEANING :
1 : to cause a strong flow of water to clean (a toilet) [with object]
• flush the toilet [no object]
• The toilet flushes automatically.
If you flush something down the toilet you get rid of it by putting it in the toilet bowl
and flushing the toilet.
• Police suspect that the drugs were flushed down the toilet.
2 a [with object] : to clean (something) with a flow of water or some other liquid
• Flush the wound with water.
• The doctor flushed her eye with a special solution.
— often followed by out
• He flushed out the car's radiator.
• flush out the system
2 b [with object] : to remove (something) with a flow of liquid
• They flushed impurities from the system. = They flushed impurities out of the system.
• He used a hose to flush the leaves from the gutters.
3 [no object] : to become red in the face because of heat, emotion, etc.
• She flushed with anger/embarrassment.
• Her face flushed at the mention of his name.
Learn about flush as a noun, another verb, an adjective, an adverb, and another noun.

September 30
variation /ˌveriˈeɪʃən/ noun plural variations
1 : a change in the form, position, condition, or amount of something [count]
• color/temperature variations
— often followed by in
• extreme variations in temperature [noncount]
• He repeated the story without variation. [=without changing it]
— often followed by in
• There's been a lot of variation in the weather lately. [=the weather has changed often lately]
• We need some variation in our routine. [=we need to change/vary our routine]
2 [count] : something that is similar to something else but different in some way
— often followed by on
• His newest book is just a slight variation on a familiar theme.
• The meal she served us was an interesting variation on a traditional turkey dinner.
3 [count] music :
a repeated version of a short piece of music with changes in its rhythm, tune, or harmony
— often followed by on
• variations on a theme by Haydn

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